1. The researcher using inferential statistics always makes predictions that

are based on having measured

a. a population

b. a sample

c.  the entire group being predicted

d.  in inferential statistics predictions are never made

2. The goal of the researcher using inferential statistics is to

a.  make better-than-chance predictions

b.  predict the characteristics of the entire group, based on measures taken

on a smaller group

c.  describe the difference between the highest and lowest score

d.  a and b, but not c

3. An example of a variable would be

a.  height

b.  weight

c.  the number of inches in a foot

d.  a and b, but not c

4. Anything that can be measured and observed to vary is called

a.  a constant

b.  a variable

c.  an integer

d.  all of these

5. The statement that one can prove anything with statistics is only true when

a.  the data have been faked

b.  the reader is naive regarding statistical procedures

c.  the statement is always true

d.  the statement is never true

6. The first attempt to employ statistical techniques for estimating

population parameters was designed in order to

a.  estimate beer-drinking tastes in Dublin, Ireland

b.  calculate the odds for casino gambling in France

c.  calculate the probability of certain exponential functions

d.  all of these

7. The first attempt to employ probability theory in a practical setting was

developed in order to

a.  predict the results of presidential elections

b.  predict economic forces in the market place

c.  predict how consumers will evaluate new products

d.  make winning bets in the gambling casinos

8. One author suggests that the best way to compare the safety of autos versus planes is on the basis of

a. the total number of deaths per year for each mode of travel

b. the total number of individuals who drive versus fly.

c. the per-hour death rate for the two modes of travel

d. none of these, since travel rates are not comparable.

9. In comparing the safety of allowing children to visit friends whose parents

own a gun versus those parents who have a swimming pool, it was found that

a. there was no safety difference between the two

b. children were safer at the homes with swimming pools

c.  children were safer at the homes with guns

d.  more parents had guns than swimming pools

10. Since poll results are based on a sample size which is less than the population size, generalizing from the sample to the population demands

a.       data graphing

b. inferential statistics

c. descriptive statistics only

d.  leap of faith

11. The commercial that specifies that a certain brand of aspirin should be used, since no other brand prevents more heart attacks proves that

a.       the brand mentioned prevents more heart attacks than does its competition

b.      the brand mentioned has been proven to prevent heart attacks

c.       the brand mentioned has only been shown effective when combined with exercise

d.    none of the above

12.  When scores are arranged in order of magnitude, the researcher has formed a

a.  histogram

b.  measure of centrality

c.  measure of dispersion

d.  distribution

13.  Traditionally, the researcher indicates frequency of occurrence on the

graph’s

a.  ordinate

b.  abscissa

c.  line of ascent

d.  horizontal axis

14.  When single points are used to designate the frequency of each score, the

points being connected by a series of straight lines, this is called a

a.  frequency polygon

b.  frequency rectangle

c.  scatter plot

d.  histogram

15.  The mean, median, and mode are all measures of

a.  dispersion

b.  variability

c.  central tendency

d.  all of these

16.  When a graph is constructed using a series of rectangles indicating the

frequency of occurrence for each score, it is called a

a.  frequency polygon

b.  frequency rectangle

c.  scatter plot

d.  histogram

17.  The measurement which occurs most often in a distribution is called the

a.  median

b.  percentile

c.  mean

d.  mode

18. When a distribution is skewed, the researcher who is  interested in central

tendency should use the

a.  mean

b.  median

c.  mode

d.  all of these are appropriate

19.  When a distribution shows a large majority of very low scores and a few

very high scores, the distribution is said to be

a.  skewed to the right

b.  skewed to the left

c.  skewed to the middle

d.  bimodal

20.  The influence of a few extreme scores in one direction is most pronounced

on the value of the

a.  mean

b.  median

c.  mode

d.  percentile

21. Using the mean to indicate centrality on a distribution of income scores

usually results in

a.  a false image of poverty

b.  an accurate portrayal of income

c.  a false image of prosperity

d.  income scores never lend themselves to centrality

22.  The concept of “individual differences” may best be described by

a.  the mode

b.  the median

c.  the measures of central tendency

d.  the measures of variability

23.  The difference between the highest and lowest scores in any distribution is

called

a.  the deviation score

b.  the standard deviation

c.  the range

d.  none of these

24.  Of the following, the measure(s) of variability is (are),

a.  the range

b.  the standard deviation

c.  the mode

d.  a and b, but not c

25.  One major defect of the range is that

a.  it includes the entire width of the distribution

b.  it is based on only two scores

c.  it is not a measure of variability

d.  all of these

26.  The measure of the entire width of the distribution is called the

a.  range

b.  percentile

c.  quartile

d.  b and c, but not a

27.  When new scores that are close to the mean are added to any distribution,

there is a fairly high probability that the range will

a.  remain unaffected

b.  be reduced

c.  be increased

d.  new scores may never be added to a distribution

28.  Specific points may be located on any distribution by using the

a.  percentile

b.  quartile

c.  decile

d.  all of these

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29.  A score which is at the 95th percentile must exceed

a.  at least 5% of the scores

b.  at least 95% of the scores

c.  at least 45% of the scores

d.  at least the lowest 47.50% of the scores

30.  When a student takes a 600-item standardized test and is told he/she is at

the 70th percentile, it means that the student

a.  answered 30% of the items correctly

b.  answered more than 70% of the items correctly

c.  answered exactly 420 items correctly

d.  none of these

31. A score which falls at the 50th percentile must always be at the

a.  mean

b.  mode

c.  median

d.  none of these