Begin your study of this period by reading Chapters 8 and 9 in 
European History

The American Revolution will be covered in greater detail in the U.S. History course, but it is important that you understand the direct relationship between the ideas of the Enlightenment and the foundations of American government.
Begin by reading an overview of events at 
History World

then read this short essay: “
Could the American Revolution Have Happened Without the Age of Enlightenment
?” Finally, before beginning the assignment below, work through the slideshow. The first few slides will feel like review, but it does eventually focus on the American Revolution.

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Inadvertently, the American Revolution contributed to the political, social, and economic unrest that resulted in the French Revolution. At 
World History
 you will find a one-page overview of the revolution and an introduction to Napoleon.
A more detailed account of the French Revolution’s beginnings and consequences is found in a series of three lectures from
History Guide. 
Begin with “
Origins of the French Revolution
.” (If the link doesn’t work, click 
 then select “Lectures on Modern European Intellectual History” and then choose Lecture 11. When you finish reading, return to the Table of Contents and proceed to read the next two lectures.)
The following slideshows can be used as a quick review or can be read before the lectures to get a sense of some key points that are explained in full in the lectures.


23.2 – The French Revolution Brings Reform and Terror

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Dan Ewert



Out of the French Revolution came one of the best known military strategists in history: Napoleon Boneparte. Historians are divided on the nature of his legacy: Was he a hero or a villain? Was he a genius or a  power-hungry madman? One thing is certain, he left a lasting impact on Europe and America.
The slide show background looks long (90 slides) but many of them are pictures (some might not open–that’s okay-we are more interested in the content), so it is not as much reading as it seems. After going through the slide show, watch the 45 biography of Napoleon.
Napoleon For Web

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While European settlers and peasants were putting the ideals of the Enlightenment into action and demanding changes in government, a similar spirit was moving through the people enslaved by those same Europeans. Begin your study of these revolts at 
History World 
by reading an overview of 
Latin America 
(read pages 5 to 7).
Next, delve deeper into the Haitian Revolution at 
Slave Resistance: A Caribbean Study
. Read all three essays: “Overview Essay,” “Resistance,” and “Social Triggers.”
Further Reading
: a biography of 
Toussaint L’Overture
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History World
provides a broad overview of the wars for independence that spread through Spanish occupied Latin and South America. Read “
Independence Movements
,” “
Bolivar & San Martin
,” “
Peru, Bolivia, Mexico
,” and “
End of Empire
.” Continue reading 
 for a more complete explanation of the people and forces behind these revolutions.  
Further Reading
: biography of 
Simon Bolivar


Latin American Revolution

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French Revolution
Liberty, Equality, Fraternity: Exploring the French Revolution

Provides comprehensive information on the revolution with a range of topical essays, extensive collections of primary-source texts, as well as images, maps, timelines, and songs. See 
Imaging the French Revolution
 for seven essays analyzing images of crowd violence during the French Revolution. 
(George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, and City University of New York, New York, NY)
Internet Modern History Sourcebook: French Revolution

Offers excerpts from many primary source documents including 
Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen 
Declaration of the Rights of Woman and Female Citizen
(Fordham University, New York, NY)
Modern Europe: The French Revolution

Provides primary source texts from the revolution including Cahiers from 1789, the Tennis Court Oath, the 
Civil Constitution of the Clergy,
and Documents of the National Convention. 
(Hanover College, Hanover, IN)
French Revolution: A Chronology

Provides a comprehensive chronology of events from 1787 to 1799, including an explanation of the revolutionary calendar, detailed accounts of legislative milestones, and the rise of Napoleon Bonaparte. 
(University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV)
How Did the British React to July 1789?

Offers a lesson based on primary sources that explores the British reaction to the events that began the French Revolution.
(The National Archives, Surrey, United Kingdom)
Napoleon & The Congress of Vienna

Features articles and primary source quotations describing Napoleon’s life, political context, and actions in war. The site also provides classroom materials, a timeline, and an interactive battle simulator. 
(Public Broadcasting Service, Alexandria, VA)
Internet Modern History Sourcebook: Conservative Order

Provides primary source documents available from Metternich and the Congress of Vienna. 
(Fordham University, New York, NY)
The Napoleon Series

Offers numerous articles and information on Napoleon, his era, and his legacy. This site has specific essays on the Campaign of the Hundred Days, biographies of Napoleon’s officers, Waterloo, and other topics related to the Napoleonic era. The Napoleon FAQ section is designed for student research. 
(Alfons Libert, Royal Museum of the Army and Military History, Brussels, Belgium)

Create a word processing document titled “Revolutions.” Copy the following questions to your document and answer in complete paragraphs (5 to 7 sentences). 
Be sure your answers are in your own words and not just copied from the reading.

  1. What were the main causes of the French Revolution? How did the Enlightenment directly affect its beginning?
  2. What event marked the beginning of the radical stage of the French Revolution?
  3. What internal and external threats did the Republic face after the execution of Louis XVI?
  4. What was the Great Fear and how did it influence the National Assembly?
  5. What were the overall effects of the French Revolution?
  6. How did Napoleon end the democratism of the Republic?
  7. How did Napoleon change French society in ways that reflected Enlightenment ideals?
  8. What reforms did Napoleon bring to countries under French control?
  9. Describe the influence/impact of the Napoleonic Code.
  10. How did the Enlightenment affect Latin American independence movements?
  11. Why was Saint Domingue important to France? What lead to revolt?
  12. Explain L’Ouveraure’s role in Haitian independence.
  13. Identify and explain the causes of the revolutions across Latin America.
  14. Describe the Congress of Vienna. What were the goals of the Conservatives, Liberals, and Nationalists following the Congress?
  15. The American Revolution began with “the shot heard ’round the world” and the French Revolution is considered to be an event that changed human history. Explain the importance of these two events and why they affected so many other countries.


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