A preliminary investigation is conducted by probation officers at or during:

a. [removed]  intake.

b. [removed]  investigation.

c. [removed]  supervision.

d. [removed]  release of offender.


The United States Supreme Court has ruled that only juveniles over the age of _____ can be executed for their crimes.

a. [removed]  10

b. [removed]  12

c. [removed]  14

d. [removed]  17


What percent of juveniles currently are waived to adult court?

a. [removed]  5 percent

b. [removed]  15 percent

c. [removed]  25 percent

d. [removed]  36 percent


Judges must hold probable cause hearings when:

a. [removed]  prosecutors file to send a juvenile to adult court.

b. [removed]  cases come to the adult court by a mandatory judicial waiver.

c. [removed]  cases come to the adult court by a discretionary judicial waiver.

d. [removed]  all of the choices apply.


The probation official who has replaced the case worker is the:

a. [removed]  police officer.

b. [removed]  community resource manager.

c. [removed]  intake officer.

d. [removed]  referee.


Which is the correct order in which probation services are provided?

a. [removed]  Intake, investigation, supervision

b. [removed]  Supervision, intake, investigation

c. [removed]  Investigation, intake, supervision

d. [removed]  Arrest, intake, investigation, supervision, bail


In order for a state to have a valid death penalty, judges must consider:

a. [removed]  mitigating circumstances.

b. [removed]  statistical ambiguities in demographic trends.

c. [removed]  historical traditions of the court.

d. [removed]  future impact of the penalty on deterring crimes.


According to studies on restitution, which of the following are among the primary goals of restitution programs?

a. [removed]  Hold parents accountable for their children’s offenses

b. [removed]  They set-up local programs to fully reimburse victims for their financial damages at their expense

c. [removed]  They hold juveniles accountable for their offenses

d. [removed]  All of the choices apply


The balanced approach in probation focuses on:

a. [removed]  arrest, conviction, and confinement.

b. [removed]  correction, rehabilitation, and aftercare.

c. [removed]  the community, the victim, and the offender.

d. [removed]  both arrest, conviction, and confinement and correction, rehabilitation, and aftercare.


Which of the following are (is/a) goal(s) of electronic monitoring programs?

a. [removed]  To reduce the number of field contacts required by home-confinement officers

b. [removed]  To provide for early unification with the juvenile’s family

c. [removed]  To keep the juvenile out of school

d. [removed]  Both to reduce the number of field contacts required by home-confinement officers and to provide for early unification with the juvenile’s family


Which of the following is the most widely used organization of probation in the United States?

a. [removed]  Local/judicial

b. [removed]  State/judicial

c. [removed]  State/executive

d. [removed]  Local/executive or a combination


To keep youths out of the adult system, Hamparian, et al. have proposed the formation of a(n):

a. [removed]  hidden system of justice.

b. [removed]  youthful offender system.

c. [removed]  net widening system.

d. [removed]  none of the choices apply.


Probation officers must satisfy:

a. [removed]  the needs of the client.

b. [removed]  only the juvenile justice system needs.

c. [removed]  their own ego needs.

d. [removed]  all of the choices apply.


The law views juveniles as:

a. [removed]  practical, reasoning, and rule-following being.

b. [removed]  an instinctually based, driven being.

c. [removed]  an emotional, feeling, and inconsistent being.

d. [removed]  none of the choices apply.


When juveniles are ordered to find jobs, hold them, and pay back victims, they are in a _____ program.

a. [removed]  treatment

b. [removed]  surveillance

c. [removed]  restitution

d. [removed]  compensation


_____ is a program of intermediate punishment whereby youths are ordered to remain confined in their residences.

a. [removed]  Solitary confinement

b. [removed]  Clinical confinement

c. [removed]  House arrest

d. [removed]  Stay home


Well-developed probation programs should help overcome what traditionally weak component of the juvenile justice program?

a. [removed]  Reinforcement of positive behavior

b. [removed]  Getting psychoanalytic techniques into the community

c. [removed]  Attacking community disorganization

d. [removed]  None of the choices apply


The Integrated Social Control (ISC) model of intensive supervision:

a. [removed]  focuses on strain, control, and social learning theories.

b. [removed]  argues that many youths are inadequately socialized.

c. [removed]  maintains that youths have weak bonding to the community.

d. [removed]  all of the choices apply.


Data on juveniles who received the death penalty indicate that:

a. [removed]  juveniles received the death penalty in numbers equal to that of adults.

b. [removed]  juveniles received the death penalty more frequently than adults.

c. [removed]  juveniles received the death penalty far less frequently than adults.

d. [removed]  no data are available on how many juveniles have received the death penalty.


_____ is when states offer financial incentives or manpower to local systems if all probationers are handled in the local system.

a. [removed]  Local determination

b. [removed]  Financial redistribution

c. [removed]  Probation subsidy

d. [removed]  State organization of control


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